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ACTA BIBLIOTHECAE R. UNIVERSITATIS UPSALIENSIS VOL. LIIuu.diva- 1166583/ ¢  Tabell 5.tt

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  • ACTA BIBLIOTHECAE R. UNIVERSITATIS

    UPSALIENSIS

    VOL. LII

  • Per Holmberger och sockenlapparnas språk

    Lars-Gunnar Larsson

  • Per Holmberger och sockenlapparnas språk

    Lars-Gunnar Larsson

    2018

  • © Uppsala universitet 2018

    ISSN 0346-7465 ISBN 978-91-513-0194-5

    Omslagsbild: En sida ur Per Holmbergers ordlista.

    Formgivning och sättning: Martin Högvall, Grafisk service, Uppsala universitet Huvudtexten satt med Berling Antiqua

    Tryck: DanagårdLiTHO AB, 2018 Distribution: Uppsala universitetsbibliotek, Box 510, 751 20 Uppsala

    Tryckt med bidrag från Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademien för svensk folkkultur Kungl. Vetenskapssamhället i Uppsala Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien

    Abstract Larsson, Lars-Gunnar. 2018: Per Holmberger och sockenlapparnas språk. Acta Bibliothecae R. Universitatis Upsaliensis 52. 274 pp. ISSN 0346-7465. ISBN 978-91-513-0194-5.

    In the early 20th century a record containing, i.a., a Saami word-list was discovered in the Uppsala University Library. It had been taken down by Per Holmberger (1745– 1807), who was a student of Linné in Uppsala and later on became a teacher and clergy-man in Östergötland, his home province. The record was assumed to have been taken down in the vicinity of the city of Gävle, some 170 kilometers north of Stockholm, around the year 1775. The Saami people were seen as belonging to north Sweden, and to explain how a record of their language could be found so far to the south at that time, researchers considered them to be gone astray and roaming, and their language was regarded as a kind of South Saami. In the present volume Holm- berger’s record is subjected to a comprehensive analysis and is discussed in its histori- cal context. The place of its origin is confirmed and it is argued that it was recorded in 1771. A thorough analysis of the vocabulary shows that Holmberger’s Saami inform- ants were integrated into the Swedish farming society, where they performed specific tasks and were engaged in certain handicraft. Their language lacked a homogenous form, and neither as to form nor as to semantics did it coincide with any particular Saami language of today. The manuscript constitutes a unique record of an extinct Saami language and bears witness to the multilingualism characteristic of pre-19th century Sweden. By the time the record was discovered, the criterion of Swedish- ness had changed from religion – orthodox Lutheranism – to Swedish language, and Saami speakers in central Sweden had to be regarded as roaming persons who had gone astray.

    Keywords: Saami language, parish Lapps, Per Holmberger, Saami dialectology, Saami vocabulary, students of Linné, farmers’ community, 18th century Saami text.

  • Innehållsförteckning

    Figurförteckning ................................................................................................................................ 8

    Tabellförteckning .............................................................................................................................. 8

    Förkortningar ...................................................................................................................................... 8

    Förord ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

    1. Inledning ........................................................................................................................................ 11 1.1. Samer i Sverige ................................................................................................................... 11 1.2. Forskningshistorik ........................................................................................................... 12 1.3. Syfte ........................................................................................................................................ 16 1.4. Materialet och undersökningens metod ................................................................ 17

    1.4.1. Materialet ................................................................................................................... 17 1.4.2. Metod ........................................................................................................................... 20

    1.4.2.1. Att välja kriterier .......................................................................................... 21 1.4.2.1.1. Grammatiska kriterier ....................................................................... 21 1.4.2.1.2. Lexikaliska kriterier .......................................................................... 23

    1.5. Språk, dialekt och dokumentation ........................................................................... 25 1.5.1. Språklig variation och språkhistorisk utveckling .................................... 25 1.5.2. Språk och dialekter ................................................................................................ 29

    1.5.2.1. Nutida dialektskillnader ............................................................................ 29 1.5.2.2. Annorlunda dialektområden i äldre tider? ...................................... 30

    1.5.3. Val av kriterier ......................................................................................................... 32 1.5.4. Dokumentationen av samiska ........................................................................... 33

    1.5.4.1. Ordförråd och lexikon ............................................................................... 34 1.5.4.2. Grammatik ...................................................................................................... 35 1.5.4.3. Grundläggande arbeten för denna studie ......................................... 36

    2. Per Holmberger – ett försök till biografi ....................................................................... 39 2.1. Källor ..................................................................................................................................... 39 2.2. Holmbergers curriculum vitae .................................................................................. 41 2.3. Bilden av Holmbergers liv ............................................................................................ 43

    2.3.1. Barn- och ungdomsåren ....................................................................................... 43 2.3.2. Uppsalastudent ...................................................................................................... 46

    2.3.2.1. Studier ............................................................................................................... 46 2.3.2.2. Lärda sällskap ................................................................................................ 49 2.3.2.3. Informator ........................................................................................................ 51

    2.3.3. Åter i Östergötland .............................................................................................. 56 2.4. Per Holmbergers liv och karriär ............................................................................... 60

  • 3. Ordlistan ....................................................................................................................................... 63 3.1. Handskriftens yttre ........................................................................................................ 63 3.2. Per Holmbergers Vocabularium linguae lapponum mendicantium ....... 69 3.3. Handskriften som källa .............................................................................................. 121 3.4. Handskriftens ortografi .............................................................................................. 122 3.5. Ordens form och översättning i den följande framställningen ................ 125

    4. Formella aspekter på ordlistans språk .......................................................................... 127 4.1. Grammatik ....................................................................................................................... 129

    4.1.1. Fonologi ..................................................................................................................... 129 4.1.1.1. Dentala frikativor ....................................................................................... 129

    4.1.1.1.1. Inljudande *δ ........................................................................................ 129 4.1.1.1.2. Inljudande *ϑ ....................................................................................... 130 4.1.1.1.3. Initialt *ϑ ............................................................................................... 131

    4.1.1.2. Varierande nasaler i inljud ..................................................................... 131 4.1.1.2.1. ’hund’ ...................................................................................................... 131 4.1.1.2.2. ’läpp’ ........................................................................................................ 132 4.1.1.2.3. ’armbåge’ ............................................................................................... 133

    4.1.1.3. Inljudande -jv- .............................................................................................. 133 4.1.1.4. Labial vokal i andra stavelsen ....................................

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