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Sem 2 lecture 1 lead

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  • Leadership

  • A leader

    Leads by example

    Strives to make a positive difference

    Inspires and encourages

    Respect others

    Provides support

    Recognizes the contributions of


  • 19001929 emphasized control and centralization of power with a

    common theme of domination. Leadership was defined as the ability to impress the will of the leader on those led and induce obedience, respect, loyalty, and cooperation (Moore, 1927, p. 124).

    1930s Traits became the focus of defining leadership influence rather than domination

    1940s The group approach came into the forefront with

    leadership being defined as the behavior of an individual while involved in directing group activities (Hemphill, 1949).

    1960s Behavior that influences people toward shared goals.

    Leadership as acts by persons which influence other persons in a shared direction (Seeman 1960 p. 53).

    SOURCE: Adapted from Leadership for the Twenty-First Century, by J. C. Rost, 1991, New York: Praeger.

    The Evolution of Leadership Definitions

  • 1980s

    Do as the leader wishes. Leadership definitions still predominantly delivered the message that leadership is getting followers to do what the

    leader wants done.

    Influence. Scholars insisted that leadership is noncoercive influence.

    Traits. Leadership is based on a trait orientation.

    Transformation. Burns (1978) is credited for initiating a movement

    defining leadership as a transformational process, stating that leadership occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality (p. 83).

    Into the 21st Century

    authentic leadership, in which the authenticity of leaders and their

    leadership is emphasized;

    servant leadership, which puts the leader in the role of servant, who utilizes caring principles to focus on followers needs to help these followers become more autonomous, knowledgeable, and like servants themselves; and

    adaptive leadership, in which leaders encourage followers to adapt by confronting and solving problems, challenges, and changes.

    SOURCE: Adapted from Leadership for the Twenty-First Century, by J. C. Rost, 1991, New York: Praeger.

    The Evolution of Leadership Definitions

  • Leadership is a process

    Leadership involves influence

    Leadership occurs in groups

    Leadership involves common goals.

    Defining Leadership

  • Defining Leadership

    Leadership is the process where a person exerts influence over others and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to achieve goals.

  • Leadership vs Management SIMILARITIES


    Involves influence Involves influence

    Working with people Working with people

    concerned with effective

    goal accomplishment

    concerned with effective

    goal accomplishment


    Provide order and

    consistency to


    Produce change and


    Seeking order and


    Seeking adaptive and

    constructive change


  • Leadership and Management

  • Assigned vs Emergent Leadership

    Leadership that is based on occupying a

    position in an organization is assigned


    Example - Team leaders, plant managers,

    department heads, directors, and


  • Assigned vs Emergent Leadership

    When others perceive an individual as the most influential member of a group or an organization, regardless of the title, the person is exhibiting emergent leadership.

    The individual acquires emergent leadership through other people in the organization who support and accept that individuals behavior.

    This type of leadership is not assigned by position; rather, it emerges over a period through communication.

  • Sources of Power Reward



    Power Coercive



    Power Referent


    Enable managers to be

    leaders & influence

    subordinates to

    achieve goals



  • Sources of Power Used to affect others behavior and get them to act

    in given ways. Legitimate Power: managers authority resulting by

    their management position in the firm.

    Can be power to hire/fire workers, assign work.

    Reward Power: based on the managers ability to give or withhold rewards.

    Pay raises, bonuses, verbal praise.

    Effective managers use reward power to signal employees they are doing a good job.

    Coercive Power: based in ability to punish others.

    Ranges from verbal reprimand to pay cuts to firing.

    Can have serious negative side effects.

  • Sources of Power Expert Power: based on special skills of leader.

    First & middle managers have most expert power.

    Often found in technical ability.

    Referent Power: results from personal characteristics of the leader which earn workers respect, loyalty and admiration.

    Usually held by likable managers who are concerned

    about their workers.

    Information Power: derived from possessing knowledge that others want or need

  • Empowerment Process of giving workers at all levels authority to

    make decisions and the responsibility for their outcomes. Empowerment helps managers:

    Get workers involved in the decisions. Increase worker commitment and motivation.

    To focus on other issues.



  • Transformational Leadership Started with von Pierer, CEO of Siemens, and allows

    dramatic improvements in management effectiveness.

    Transformational managers:

    Make subordinates aware of how important their jobs are

    by providing feedback to the worker.

    Make subordinates aware of their own need for personal

    growth and development.

    Motivate workers to work for the good of the organization,

    not just themselves.

  • Transformational Leaders Transformational leaders are charismatic and have a

    vision of how good things can be.

    They are excited and clearly communicate this to


    Transformational leaders openly share information with workers.

    Everyone is aware of problems and the need for change.

    Empowers workers to help with solutions.

    Transformational leaders engage in development of workers.

    Manager works hard to help them build skills.

  • Transactional Leadership

    Involves managers using the reward and coercive power to encourage high performance.

    Managers who push subordinates to change but do not seem to change themselves are transactional.

    The transactional manager does not have the vision of the Transformational leader.

  • Authentic Leadership

    Focus on whether leadership is genuine or


    People long for leaders they can trust and

    for leaders who are honest and good

    Exhibit genuine leadership, lead from

    conviction and are originals.

  • Servant Leadership

    Can leadership be both service and

    influence? Leader influence and

    servants follows?

    Want to lead, serve first

    Attentive to the concerns of their

    followers, empathize them and nurture


    Put follower first

  • Adaptive Leadership

    Encourage people to adapt, face and

    deal with problems, challenges and


    Follower centred concerned with how

    people change and adjust to the new


    Engage in activities that mobilize,

    motivate, organize, orient and focus on

    the attention of others.

  • Leadership Across Cultures

    Leadership styles may vary over different cultures.

    European managers tend to be more people-oriented than American or Japanese managers.

    Japanese culture is very collective oriented, while

    American focuses more on profitability.

    Time horizons also are affected by cultures.

    U.S. firms often focus on short-run efforts.

    Japanese firms take a longer-term outlook.

    Globalization created the need for leaders to be

    competent in cross-cultural awareness and practices.

  • Gender and Leadership

    The number of women managers is rising but still relatively low in top levels.

    Stereotypes suggest women are supportive and concerned with interpersonal relations.

    Similarly, men are seen as task-focused.

    Research indicates that actually there is no gender-based difference in leadership effectiveness.

    However, women are seen to be more participative than men.

  • Directions:

    Form a group of 5 member

    Identify a leader

    Using the Leadership Traits identified in class, create a Wall to explain your leader.

    Your wall must include the following:

    Who, What, When, Why, How

    Identify the relevant traits

    Quote that fits the trait

    Picture of a leader who embodies the trait.

    Minimum 4 slides

    5-10 minutes presentation


    Assignment 1

  • One who gives

    full loyalty and

    support to


    To lead the people, walk behind them.

    - Lao Tzu

    Nelson Mandela 1918-2013

    President, South Africa 1994-99

    Civil Right A